Definitions

Name of food

The names of food are provided in Estonian, English, Russian and, if available, in Latin.

Share of the edible part

The value indicates how much of the particular food, in its original form, can be considered as edible. A reverse calculation is possible from the 100 g edible part to the original, or “bought”, form using the following formula: g ("bought" food) = 100 g * (100 %/share of the edible part %)). Note that the share of the edible part in tables is often an estimate derived during laboratory analyses and the resulting values may not always coincide with the values encountered in the practice of food preparation.

Content

All food composition values are expressed as per 100 g edible part of the food. The values are presented with a number of significant digits according to the precision of the input data in calculations. The level of precision depends on the method of analysis, the calculation procedure, etc. The values of the same nutrient can vary depending on the method used to determine the value. Values are given for all available nutrients where data can be found. An empty value field, with unknown source, means that information on the particular nutrient was not found. If possible, the values of some nutrients are provided as estimates on the basis of similar foods or are calculated from analytical values. This means that a zero value cannot automatically be assigned to empty fields. A zero value indicates that either the natural content of the nutrient in question is zero or that traces of the nutrient have been found, but the amount is too small to be of significance in this context. The sum of macro-nutrient proteins, carbohydrates, fat, alcohol, ash and water is not always 100 g in the database. This can be caused by the collection of data from different sources and some inaccuracies in chemical analysis.

Variation

The maximum and minimum values of each nutrient are provided in the case of values that have been found through chemical analysis. If only the standard deviation of the average value is shown, the variation has a confidence interval of 95 %.

Source
 
For each value presented, the source is indicated by a respective code in the source column. The bibliographic information on the source can be displayed by clicking on the source code. The information in the original source should be consulted for specific details or for determination of the quality of data.
 
“Type”-concept use in the name of the food
 
The “type”-concept added to the name of the food generally refers to the product details coming from the package or website and is usually expressed in the values of basic nutrients, dietary fibres, sodium, and saturated fat. “Type”-concept is also used in representing the results of the analysis if the products with certain trademarks were analysed.
 
Trace value
 
The trace value expressions in the Food Composition Database (on 100g of the edible part of the food):
 
Ingredient
Unit
Trace = less than
Energy
kJ (kcal)
2.5 (0.6)
Water, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, dietary fibres, alcohol, ash  
g
0.06
Amino acids
mg
0.06
Fatty acids
g
0.06
Cholesterol
mg
0.6
Inorganic compounds
mg / μg
0.06
Vitamin A
μg
0.6
Carotenes
μg
0.6
Vitamin D
μg
0.06
Vitamin E
mg
0.006
Vitamin K
μg
0.06
Thiamine
mg
0.006
Riboflavin
mg
0.006
Niacin
mg
0.006
Vitamin B6
mg
0.006
Pantonen acid
mg
0.006
Biotine
mg
0.006
Vitamin B12
μg
0.006
Folates
μg
0.06
Vitamin C
mg
0.06
 
Representing foods with residues
 
Foods with names that contain the words “with shell”, “with bone”, “wholly”, etc. often have the inedible part considered in the weight of the food. This does not mean that the nutritional values of the food are also represented on the residues. (This could create confusion with citrus fruits, for example, which are sometimes consumed with their peel.) The explanations on the edible and inedible part of the food have been presented under “the essence of the edible portion” and “the essence of the residues” in the food profiles. The need for representing some foods with residues in the database is due to the situation where the residues cannot be removed from the food before eating (e.g. apple core) or where food is prepared and served with residues (e.g. whole baked fish).
 

Definitions of nutrients

 

Alkohol

Алкоголь Alcohol  (Alkohol ehk etanool)

Ethanol is a straight-chain alcohol with a molecular formula of C2H5OH. Pure alcohol is high in energy, providing 29 KJ or 7 kcal of energy per gram.

Alcohol acts as an diuretic or excretes water from the body, which results in quick shortage of water in the body while consuming alcohol. The excessive consumption of alcohol may cause several health disorders, including cancer, liver diseases, stroke, high blood pressure, and the deterioration of mental health.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Beeta-karoteeni ekvivalent

Эквивалент бета-каротина Beta-carotene equivalents

Beta-carotene equivalent (BCE) is used to express the activity of provitamin A carotenoids. These substances (β-carotene, γ-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) are converted into vitamin A in the body (see “vitamin A”).

Beta-carotene equivalent (BCE) = beta-carotene + 1/2 alpha-carotene + 1/2 other provitamin A carotenoids

Unit in the database: beta-carotene equivalent (BCE)


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Biotiin

Биотин Biotin  (Biotiin ehk vitamiin B7 ehk vitamiin H)

Water-soluble vitamin. 

Biotin has a bicyclic ring structure. Biotin is mainly synthesized by bacteria and primitive eucaryotic organisms, such as yeast, mould, and algae. 

Biotin is required for metabolism and energy production. Biotin is one of the most important vitamins for ensuring growth, including cell growth and renewal. Vitamin B7 also plays an important role in the biosynthesis of fats and formation of several fatty acids, which are essential for nervous tissues and metabolism of amino acids. Among other functions, biotin helps to maintain the health of hair and nails.

Unit in the database: microgram (µg)


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Energia (sh kiudained)

Энергия (вкл. волокнистые вещества) Energy (incl. fibre)

Energy, kcal = protein(g) x 4(kcal/g) + fat(g) x 9(kcal/g) + carbohydrates, available(g) x 4(kcal/g) + fibre(g) x 2(kcal/g) + alcohol(g) x 7(kcal/g) 


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Energia (sh kiudained)

Энергия (вкл. волокнистые вещества) Energy (incl. fibre)

The energy content of the food is expressed in kilojoules (kJ) according to the SI system.

The commonly used unit for expressing energy content is kilocalorie (kcal).

A kilocalorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C.

The food energy content is calculated on the basis of food proteins, fats, available carbohydrates, dietary fibres and alcohol content, using the following conversion factors (RT I 2009, 26, 163 – entered into force on 1.07.2009):

Energy, kJ = proteins (g) x 17 (kJ/g) + fats (g) x 37 (kJ/g) + carbohydrates, available (g) x 17 (kJ/g) +  dietary fibres (g) x 8 (kJ/g) + alcohol (g) x 29 (kJ/g)

Our organism needs energy to sustain life. The energy from food provides the organism with necessary energy for basal metabolism, body temperature regulation, physical and mental activities.

Unit in the database: kilojoule (kJ), kilocalorie (kcal)


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Folaadid

Фолаты Folates  (Folaadid, foolhape ehk vitamiin B9)

Water-soluble vitamin.

Folates are substances (pteroylglutamates) derived from folic acid (pteroylglitaminic acid). This vitamin is found in food and human organism mainly in the form of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolates. Pure folic acid is not naturally present in food, but it is widely used in food fortification or as a food additive. Folates are expressed as the sum of folic acid and the associated substances.

Folic acid is particularly important for normal foetal development, including prevention of neural tube defects (abnormal development of the foetal central nervous system). Folates also contribute to the formation of DNA and, together with vitamin B12, in the synthesis of erythrocytes.

Unit in the database: microgram (µg)


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Fosfor

Фосфор Phosphorus

The most common form of phosphorus in nature is in pentavalent combination with oxygen, or phosphate (PO43-).

Phosphorus is a constituent element in all major classes of biochemical compounds. This mineral is extremely important for many structural and functional tasks in human organism. Phosphorus contributes to the formation of teeth and bones; it is required for the function of the brain and central nervous system, and plays an important role in the energy exchange of the organism. As part of phospholipids, phosphorus is one of the main elements of biological membranes.

Unit in the database: milligram (mg)


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Fruktoos

Фруктоза Fructose  (Fruktoos ehk puuviljasuhkur)

Fructose is a monosaccharide (C6H12O6).

See also “available carbohydrates”.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Galaktoos

Галактоза Galactose

Galactose is a monosaccharide found mainly as a component in lactose. Free galactose is relatively rare in nature.

Unit in the database: gram (g)

See also “lactose” and “available carbohydrates”.


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Glükoos

Глюкоза Glucose  (Glükoos ehk viinamarjasuhkur)

Glucose is a monosaccharide (C6H12O6).

See also “available carbohydrates”.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Jood

Йод Iodine

Iodine is a reactive halogen, which is usually transformed into iodides. Iodine occurs naturally in sea water and magma rocks.

Iodine contributes to the synthesis of thyroid hormones and energy metabolism. These hormones are responsible for the health of cells and normal metabolic rate. Iodine consumption is also required for the growth and mental development of small children. Arguably, iodine also helps to reduce weight, alleviate rheumatic diseases, gastric ulcers and hair loss, and ensures healthy arteries and nervous tissues.

Unit in the database: microgram (µg)


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Kaalium

Калий Potassium

Potassium does not occur in nature in its pure form; it is always bound to other compounds and is mostly found in the form of chloride (KCl).

Together with sodium, potassium regulates the osmotic pressure of cells and the acid-alkaline balance. Potassium is also important for the functioning of cardiac muscles and the nervous system, and could reduce blood pressure.

Unit in the database: milligram (mg)


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Kaltsium

Кальций Calcium

Calcium does not occur in nature in its pure form, but it is abundant as part of calcium carbonate, or limestone (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4 x 2H2O), and fluoride (CaF2).

Sufficient level of calcium in the organism ensures healthy bones, teeth, muscles, and nerves. Calcium also regulates muscle contractions, including the function of the heart, and ensures normal blood coagulation.

Unit in the database: milligram (mg)


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Kiudained

Kлетчатка Dietary fibre

Dietary fibres are components of the cell walls of plants. The common fibres include non-starch polysaccharides, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin.

The primary benefit of dietary fibres is to maintain proper functioning of the digestive system: they increase the volume of food mass and facilitate its movement in the small intestine. Dietary fibres also lower blood cholesterol levels and regulate blood sugar, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Kolesterool

Холестерин Cholesterol

Cholesterol can be found in nature either in a free form or bound to fatty acids (cholesteryl esters) or some proteins.

Cholesterol is required for the production of bile acids, sex hormones and vitamin D; it is also a necessary component of cell membranes.

Unit in the database: milligram (mg)


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Kroom

Хром Chromium

Trivalent (III) and hexavalent (VI) chromium are the main forms of chromium from the biological perspective. Bioactive trivalent chromium can be found in food, while the toxic hexavalent chromium is a result of industrial pollution and has a carcinogenic effect. Cr (III) is very common in nature and can be found in air, water, soil, and biological material.

Unit in the database: microgram (µg)


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Küllastunud rasvhapped

Насыщенные жировые кислоты Saturated fatty acids

Saturated fatty acids are fatty acids without double bonds. They include caprylic acid (C8:0), capric acid (C10:0), lauric acid (C12:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmic acid (C16:0), and stearic acid (C18:0). Palmic and stearic acid are the two types commonly found in human organisms.

In addition to fuelling the body, saturated fatty acids also constitute a part of cell membranes. Various saturated fatty acids are also associated with proteins, ensuring their normal functioning in the organism. Excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Laktoos

Лактоза Lactose  (Laktoos ehk piimasuhkur)

Lactose is a disaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose.

See also “available carbohydrates”.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Linoleenhape (C18:3)

Линоленовая кислота (C18:3) Linolenic acid (18:3)

Linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) is an essential fatty acid and belongs to the group of omega-3 fatty acids.

Unit in the database: gram (g)

See “polyunsaturated fatty acids”.


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Linoolhape (C18:2)

Линолевая кислота (C18:2) Linoleic acid (C18:2)

Linoleic acid (C18:2-n-6) is an essential fatty acid and belongs to the group of omega-6 fatty acids.

Unit in the database: gram (g)

See “polyunsaturated fatty acids”.


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Magneesium

Магний Magnesium

Large quantities of magnesium occur in nature in the form of magnesite, dolomite, and other minerals.

Magnesium is an essential cofactor in many enzyme systems and helps to convert ingested food into energy. It is also a necessary mineral for the function of the cardiac muscles and circulation regulation. Magnesium is required for cell energy and nervous functions and it plays an important role in normal functioning of parathyroid glands. The latter produce hormones that are important for bone health.

Unit in the database: milligram (mg)


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Maltoos

Мальтоза Maltose  (Maltoos ehk linnasesuhkur)

Maltose is a disaccharide consisting of two glucose molecules (C12H22O11).

See also “available carbohydrates”.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Mangaan

Марганец Manganese

Manganese can exist in several stages of oxidation, with Mn2+ and Mn3+ having the most biological significance. Manganese occurs in soil and water both naturally and as a result of pollution.

Manganese is a part of several enzymes and activates other enzymes. Among other functions, manganese is required to influence growth, blood formation and the work of endocrine glands.

Unit in the database: milligram (mg)


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Monoküllastumata rasvhapped

Мононенасыщенные жировые кислоты Monounsaturated fatty acids

Monounsaturated fatty acids have a single double bond. Oleic acid (C18:1 n-9) makes up 92% of the monounsaturated fatty acids that can be found in food.

Monounsaturated fatty acids are important parts of membrane lipids, especially in myelin around neurons.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Naatrium

Натрий Sodium

In most foods, sodium is present in combination with chlorine as sodium chloride or salt. Another important source of sodium in food is sodium glutamate (E621), a flavour enhancer.

Sodium helps to regulate the volume of water in tissues and affects blood pressure; it is important in the functioning of the nervous system and muscles. Excessive sodium consumption can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Unit in the database: milligram (mg)

See also “salt”.


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Niatsiin

Ниацин Niacin  (Niatsiin ehk vitamiin B3)

Water-soluble vitamin.

Two forms of niacin can be found in food: nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Both forms are resistant to air oxygen, light, and heat in both dry and humid environments.

Niacin plays a major role in cellular respiration reactions. Niacin contributes to the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates and helps to maintain the health of the nervous and digestive systems.

Unit in the database: milligram (mg)

See also “niacin equivalent” and “tryptophan”.


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Niatsiini ekviv. trüptofaanist

Эквивалент ниацина - триптофан Niacin equiv. from tryptophan

Tryptophan is metabolized into niacin in the body and it is included in the evaluation of niacin activity.

Unit in the database: milligram (mg)

See also “niacin” and “niacin equivalent”.


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Niatsiini ekvivalent, kokku

Ниациновый эквивалент, всего Niacin equivalents, total

Niacin activity is expressed by nicotinic acid, nicotinamide and tryptophan (precursor). The total niacin activity is expressed as niacin equivalents (NE), where:

1 niacin equivalent (NE) = 1 mg niacin

1 niacin equivalent (NE) = 60 mg tryptophan

Unit in the database: niacin equivalent (NE)

See also “niacin” and “tryptophan”.


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Nikkel

Никель Nickel

Nickel and nickel compounds occur in soil, water, plants, and animals.

Nickel affects the quantity of iron absorbed by the organism and can be important for the synthesis of erythrocytes. Nickel is associated with several enzymes in plants and microbes.

Unit in the database: microgram (µg)


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Palmitiinhape (C16)

Пальмитиновая кислота (C16) Palmitic acid (C16)

Palmitic acid (C16:0) is one of the most common saturated fatty acids.

Unit in the database: gram (g)

See “saturated fatty acids”.


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Pantoteenhape

Пантотеновая кислота Pantothenic acid  (Pantoteenhape ehk vitamiin B5)

Water-soluble vitamin.

Only the dextrorotatory D(+) form of the pantothenic acid is active in human organisms.

It is usually found in combination with proteins or in the form of salts. Free pantothenic acid is unstable and extremely hygroscopic (moisture-absorbing).

Pantothenic acid helps to release food energy, performing various roles in cellular metabolism and in the synthesis of many vital molecules.

Unit in the database: milligram (mg)


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Polüküllastumata rasvhapped

Полиненасыщенные жировые кислоты Polyunsaturated fatty acids

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are fatty acids with more than one double bond. A differentiation is made between omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids where the number indicates the first carbon atom with a double bond, counted from the end carbon of the chain. The most important polyunsaturated fatty acids are linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) and alpha-linoleic acid (C18:3 n-3), which are essential fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by the organism itself.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids lower the levels of serum LDL cholesterol and reduce the risk of cardiac diseases.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Rasvad

Жиры Fats  (Rasvad ehk lipiidid)

The quantity of fat indicates the total lipid content of the food. Lipids are fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids, and sterols (e.g., cholesterol). The term “fat” is commonly used for triglycerides that consist of three fatty acids and glycerol. Fats can consist of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

The main function of fat is to provide and store energy. Dietary fat is also an important building material for cells and they assist in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. They also perform a cleansing function in the organism.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Rasvhapped, kokku

Жирные кислоты, всего Fatty acids, total

Fatty acids are hydrocarbon chains that include a methyl and carboxyl group. “Fatty acids, total” indicates the total amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in food. All fats, which are mostly triglycerides, contain a glycerol part that does not belong to the group of fatty acids. In the case of phospholipids, fatty acids even constitute the smaller portion of the lipid.

Unit in the database: gram (g)

See also “fats”.


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Raud

Железо Iron

Solid iron occurs in nature both in its free form and in iron compounds. In water solutions, iron can occur at two states of oxidation, as Fe2+ or Fe3+ ions. Natural iron can be found in minerals, soil, and water.

Iron helps to form erythrocytes, which are essential for oxygen transportation. Consequently, iron is responsible for supplying tissues with oxygen, establishing oxygen reserves in muscle tissues and ensuring cellular respiration. Iron also increases resistance to stress and diseases.

Unit in the database: milligram (mg)


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Retinool

Ретинол Retinol

See “vitamin A”.

Unit in the database: microgram (µg)


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Sahharoos

Сахароза Sucrose  (Sahharoos ehk lauasuhkur)

Sucrose is a disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose (C12H22O11).

See also “available carbohydrates”.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Seleen

Селен Selenium

Selenium occurs in soil and rocks and, therefore, it can accumulate in plants. Selenocysteine is the bioactive form of selenium.

Selenium is an important antioxidant; sufficient consumption of selenium has been associated with the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Selenium plays an important role in the immune system, metabolism of thyroid hormones, and normal functioning of reproductive systems.

Unit in the database: microgram (µg)


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Soola ekvivalent

Эквивалент соли Salt equivalent  (Sool ehk naatriumkloriid)

Salt, or cooking salt, consists of 40% sodium and 60% chlorine. Sodium chloride can be found in nature as halite or rock salt.

Calculations for the equivalent of salt take into account both naturally present sodium and added sodium in foods.

In the given database: the equivalent of salt = 2.5 x sodium

Unit in the database: gram (g)

See also “sodium”.


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Steariinhape (C18)

Стериновая кислота (C18) Stearic acid (C18)

Stearic acid (C18:0) is one of the most common saturated fatty acids

Unit in the database: gram (g)

See “saturated fatty acids”.


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Suhkrud, kokku

Sugars, total

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Süsivesikud, imenduvad

Углеводы, всасываемые Carbohydrates, available

Defined as the sum of free sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, maltose) and starch.

Available carbohydrates = total carbohydrates - fibres

Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the organism (especially the brain) and are also a part of cells and tissues.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Süsivesikud, kokku

Углеводы, всего Carbohydates, total

Unlike available carbohydrates, the definition of “total carbohydrates” also includes dietary fibres.

Total carbohydrates (g) = 100 - (protein + fat + water + ash)

See also “available carbohydrates” and “fibres”.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Trans-rasvhapped

Транс-жирные кислоты Trans fatty acids

The term “trans fatty acids” is used for unsaturated fatty acids that include at least one double bond in the trans arrangement. The physical properties of trans fatty acids are similar to those of the saturated fatty acids. They are rare in nature, but can be produced by partial hydrogenation, or solidification, of unsaturated fatty acids in the course of industrial processing.

Excessive consumption of trans fatty acids can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Unit in the database: gram (g)


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Tsink

Цинк Zinc

Zinc occurs in nature in the form of sulphide (ZnS), silicate (ZnSiO4) and oxide (ZnO). Zinc can be found in earth crust and sea water, as well as in all plant and animal tissues. 

Zinc is part of the composition of over 200 enzymes; it contributes to the processing of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, as well as to the metabolism of hormones and vitamins. Zinc has a key role in the synthesis and stabilization of genetic material; it helps to form new cells and enzymes and participates in the formation of blood.

Unit in the database: milligram (mg)


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Tuhk

Зола Ash